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178                                    FI.ORA  INDICA.
feet. On the more humid ranges Abies Brunoniana appears
at 8000 feet, and above it Picea Webbiana. Pinus excelsa
also' Occurs abundantly, as well as the Yew, and Cnpressw
fanebris is cultivated as low as 2000 feet, and a very little way
from the Assam plain. Further in the interior Abies Smithi-
ana. occurs, and Larix Griffithii to the westward, Pinus lon-
gi/oliti, being still found in the hot dry valleys.
In general features the flora of Bhotan resembles that of
Sikkim, which is much better .known. Itr differs'principally
by containing* several Khasia and eastern forms which do not
extend further west, such as Liquidambar, Corylopsis, and an
oak with leaves like Robnr (Quercus Griffithii, H.f. et T.).
These axe chiefly plants of the subtropical and lower temperate
zone; while those of the upper temperate'and subalpme zone
appear, so far as we have had an opportunity of comparing
them, -to be almost identical with those of Sikkim. It must,
however, be recollected that the collections of Griffith axe all
from the-western parts of Bhotan, and that the eastern parts
are not at all 'known*
The province of Sikkim, though of very limited extent, is
now the best known j>art of the central or eastern Himalaya,
and presents many features of much interest. It consists en-
tirely of the basin of the river Tista, which, with its tributa-
ries, drain the whole country. The course of thia river is for
the most part meridional, that is, perpendicular to the plains;
and the same may be said of its great tributary tlic llangit
river, which joins, it from the west, flowing for a short dis-
tance parallel to the plains, through a deep ravine not 1000
feet above the sea, to the north of a tramversc range ele-
vated 7-8000 feet.
The position of Sikkim, opposite to the opening of the
Gangetic valley, between the mountains of Bahar on the one
hand, and those of Khasia on the other, exposes it to the full
force of the monsoon; its rains are therefore heavy aud almost